Hallucinations in Large Language Models

Rishiraj Acharya@rishirajacharya
Nov 28, 2023
4 minute read11 views
Hallucinations in Large Language Models

Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-3 have been making significant strides in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). However, these models are not without their quirks. One such quirk is the phenomenon of "hallucination", where the model generates outputs that are not grounded in the input data. This blog post aims to delve into the technical aspects of hallucinations in LLM outputs and is free of ChatGPT generated content.

Understanding Hallucination in Large Language Models

Hallucination in the context of LLMs refers to the generation of outputs that are not supported by the input data. In other words, the model "imagines" details or facts that are not present or implied in the input. This can lead to outputs that are creative, but also potentially misleading or incorrect.

The Mechanism Behind Hallucinations

LLMs like GPT-3 are trained on a vast corpus of text data using a variant of the Transformer architecture. The training objective is to predict the next word in a sequence, given the previous words. This is achieved by minimizing the cross-entropy loss between the model's predictions and the actual next word in the training data.

The model learns to generate text by adjusting its internal parameters to minimize this loss. However, the model does not have any explicit understanding of the world or the text it is generating. It merely learns patterns in the data it was trained on. This lack of "understanding" can lead to hallucinations.

The Technical Reasons Behind Hallucinations

Hallucinations can occur due to several reasons:

  1. Data Sparsity: Even though LLMs are trained on vast amounts of data, they can still encounter inputs during inference that are unlike anything they've seen during training. In such cases, the model might hallucinate details to fill in the gaps.
  2. Model Uncertainty: LLMs are probabilistic models that generate outputs based on learned probability distributions. When the model is uncertain about what to generate next, it might choose a plausible-sounding but incorrect output, leading to hallucinations.
  3. Bias in Training Data: If the training data contains biased or incorrect information, the model can learn and reproduce these biases, leading to hallucinations.

The Technical Approach for Mitigating Hallucinations

Several strategies can be employed to mitigate hallucinations in LLM outputs:

  1. Fine-tuning: Fine-tuning the model on a more specific dataset can help reduce hallucinations. This can guide the model to generate outputs that are more in line with the specific task at hand. Fine-tuning involves continuing the training process on a smaller, task-specific dataset, adjusting the weights that the model learned during pre-training.
  2. Prompt Engineering: Carefully designing the input prompt can also help reduce hallucinations. For example, explicitly asking the model to only generate outputs based on the given input can sometimes help. This involves crafting prompts that guide the model towards the desired output, which can be an art in itself.
  3. Model Ensembling and Stacking: Using an ensemble of models or stacking models can also help. The idea is to use one model to generate outputs and another model to filter or rank these outputs based on their plausibility. This could involve using a separate classifier to rank outputs, or using reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) to train a model to rank outputs.
  4. Regularization: Techniques like dropout, weight decay, and early stopping can help prevent the model from overfitting to the training data, which can in turn help reduce hallucinations. Regularization adds a penalty to the loss function, encouraging the model to learn simpler patterns and thus reducing the likelihood of hallucinations.


While hallucinations in LLM outputs can be a challenge, they also provide an interesting insight into the workings of these models. By understanding why hallucinations occur and how to mitigate them, we can make better use of these powerful models and push the boundaries of what is possible with deep learning.

As we continue to develop and refine these models, it's crucial to keep in mind their limitations and quirks. Only by fully understanding these aspects can we hope to harness the full potential of LLMs and pave the way for more reliable and accurate AI systems.

Rishiraj Acharya

Learn more about Rishiraj Acharya

Rishiraj is a Google Developer Expert in ML (1st GDE from Generative AI sub-category in India). He is a Machine Learning Engineer at Tensorlake, worked at Dynopii & Celebal at past and is a Hugging Face 🤗 Fellow. He is the organizer of TensorFlow User Group Kolkata and have been a Google Summer of Code contributor at TensorFlow. He is a Kaggle Competitions Master and have been a KaggleX BIPOC Grant Mentor. Rishiraj specializes in the domain of Natural Language Processing and Speech Technologies.